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EMF Studies

09 November 2017

Fourteen New Papers on Electromagnetic Fields and Biology or Health

Fourteen new papers on electromagnetic fields and biology or health, courtesy of Joel M. Moskowitz, Ph.D., Director, Center for Family and Community Health, School of Public Health, University of California, Berkeley.
Electromagnetic Radiation Safety, 7 November 2017

Evaluation of children exposure to electromagnetic fields of mobile phones using age-specific head models with age-dependent dielectric properties

Mohammed B, Jin J, Abbosh A, Bialkowski K, Manoufali M, Crozier S. Evaluation of children exposure to electromagnetic fields of mobile phones using age-specific head models with age-dependent dielectric properties. IEEE Access. PP(99). 2017

Abstract

Given the rapid introduction of mobile phones and other portable wireless devices into society, and the increased possibility of young children using or being exposed to electromagnetic (EM) fields, a study of specific absorption rate (SAR) in the head of young children is becoming increasingly relevant. To accurately evaluate the exposure of children to electromagnetic fields, realistic head models, which consider the age-specific anatomical structure and age-dependent tissues dielectric properties, are developed. During postnatal development of human tissues, the number and size of cells increase while the proportion of water content decreases. Such changes result generally in significant changes in the dielectric properties of tissues. The SAR levels for different ages are investigated using the developed child’s head models when young children or their parents use a standard mobile phone.

The results show that the maximum SAR levels in brain tissues of young children (3 months) are higher by up to 61% and 78% than adults at the lowest (700 MHz) and highest (2600 MHz) investigated frequencies, respectively. The percentage absorption power in the heads of young children (3 months) is higher by up to 40.6% and 24% than the values for adults at 700 MHz and 2600 MHz, respectively.

Our investigation shows that previous studies, which used scaled head models without considering the age-dependent variations in the head anatomy and/or age-dependent tissues’ dielectric properties, underestimated SAR levels in the children’s heads. The obtained results using the developed realistic head models indicate that for young children, a lower limit on radiated power might be required to meet the acceptable dosimetry levels.

http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/8086149/

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An international prospective cohort study of mobile phone users and health (COSMOS): Factors affecting validity of self-reported mobile phone use

Toledano MB, Auvinen A, Tettamanti G, Cao Y, Feychting M, Ahlbom A, Fremling K, Heinävaara S, Kojo K, Knowles G, Smith RB, Schüz J, Johansen C, Poulsen AH, Deltour I, Vermeulen R, Kromhout H, Elliott P, Hillert L. An international prospective cohort study of mobile phone users and health (COSMOS): Factors affecting validity of self-reported mobile phone use. Int J Hyg Environ Health. 2017 Sep 20. pii: S1438-4639(17)30321-8. doi: 10.1016/j.ijheh.2017.09.008.

Highlights
• Agreement for self-reported phone use was higher for call duration than frequency.
• Subjects tended to underestimate rather than overestimate mobile phone use.
• Agreement for self-reported call frequency was higher in men and older subjects.
• Subjects who reported symptoms were more likely to overestimate low call duration.

Abstract

This study investigates validity of self-reported mobile phone use in a subset of 75 993 adults from the COSMOS cohort study. Agreement between self-reported and operator-derived mobile call frequency and duration for a 3-month period was assessed using Cohen's weighted Kappa (κ). Sensitivity and specificity of both self-reported high (≥10 calls/day or ≥4h/week) and low (≤6 calls/week or <30min/week) mobile phone use were calculated, as compared to operator data. For users of one mobile phone, agreement was fair for call frequency (κ=0.35, 95% CI: 0.35, 0.36) and moderate for call duration (κ=0.50, 95% CI: 0.49, 0.50). Self-reported low call frequency and duration demonstrated high sensitivity (87% and 76% respectively), but for high call frequency and duration sensitivity was lower (38% and 56% respectively), reflecting a tendency for greater underestimation than overestimation. Validity of self-reported mobile phone use was lower in women, younger age groups and those reporting symptoms during/shortly after using a mobile phone. This study highlights the ongoing value of using self-report data to measure mobile phone use. Furthermore, compared to continuous scale estimates used by previous studies, categorical response options used in COSMOS appear to improve validity considerably, most likely by preventing unrealistically high estimates from being reported.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29056311

Excerpts

The target population for COSMOS was adult mobile phone users, aged 18–69 years, in 5 European countries: Denmark, Finland, the Netherlands, Sweden and the UK, and recently a 6th cohort has been initiated in France.

This analysis focuses on participants recruited into the study in Finland, Sweden and the UK between 2007 and 2010.

Participants were asked to report frequency and duration of mobile phone voice calls for the preceding three months via the following two questions:

“Over the last three months, how often did you talk on a mobile phone?” with the response options: <1 call per week (Finland and Sweden only; the UK web-based questionnaire filtered out these respondents in a previous question), 1–6 calls per week, 1–9 calls per day, ≥10 calls per day.“Over the last three months, on average, how much time per week did you spend talking on a mobile phone?” with the response options: <5 min, 5–29 min, 30–59 min, 1–3 h, 4–6 h, >6 h.

Participants were asked if they experienced symptoms (“no symptoms, headache, dizziness, numbness in hands, nausea, hearing loss, tinnitus/ringing sound in ear, warming sensation on face and/or ear”) whilst using, or shortly after using, a mobile phone.

Approximately 20% of participants spent at least 4 h per week on calls and/or made at least 10 calls per day, and were thus defined as having high mobile phone use (Table 1).

We found that a considerable proportion of respondents misclassified their mobile phone use (approximately 60% and 40% for call duration and frequency, respectively) (Table 2, Supplementary Tables 1 & 2). Approximately a third of the participants underestimated their mobile phone call duration and frequency. The proportion of participants overestimating mobile phone use was much lower (23% for duration and 5% for call frequency among one- phone users) (Table 2).

Agreement between self-reported and operator call duration was significantly lower among those who reported experiencing symptoms whilst (or shortly after) using a mobile phone (κ = 0.44 (95% CI: 0.43, 0.46)) compared with those without symptoms (κ = 0.50 (95% CI: 0.49, 0.50)), primarily because those with symptoms were more likely to overestimate low call duration (sensitivity = 65% (95% CI: 62%, 67%) vs. 78% (95% CI: 77%, 79%) for those with and without symptoms respectively) (Table 4). A similar pattern was observed for call frequency, but the differences were smaller.

In this largest validation study to date, we found fair to moderate agreement between self-reported and operator-derived data on mobile phone use. The sensitivity of self-report was generally high for correctly identifying those with the smallest amount of mobile phone use, but lower for identifying heavy mobile phone use, in line with our observation that respondents in this study were more likely to underestimate than overestimate their mobile phone use.

Our findings demonstrate that those who experience symptoms when using a mobile phone are more likely to overestimate light mobile phone use, particularly call duration, compared to those without symptoms. This suggests that an individual’s experience and/or perception of their health may influence the self-reporting of mobile phone use, likely affecting the validity of such exposure assessments. More specifically, it is possible that rumination bias (a form of information bias), whereby those with symptoms overestimate (consciously or subconsciously) their phone use in an effort to explain their symptoms, could be occurring in this subset of individuals. This finding has potential implications for the interpretation of previous cross-sectional studies investigating associations between mobile phone use and the symptoms reported here (Mortazavi et al., 2007; Soderqvist et al., 2008; Sandstrom et al., 2001). Overestimation of mobile phone use among those who report such symptoms would likely bias cross-sectional risk estimates away from the null, even if a true association does not exist (Armstrong, 1998), thus potentially distorting any observed associations.

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Total recall in the SCAMP cohort: Validation of self-reported mobile phone use in the smartphone era

Mireku MO, Mueller W, Fleming C, Chang I, Dumontheil I, Thomas MSC, Eeftens M, Elliott P, Röösli M, Toledano MB. Total recall in the SCAMP cohort: Validation of self-reported mobile phone use in the smartphone era. Environ Res. 2017 Oct 30;161:1-8. doi: 10.1016/j.envres.2017.10.034. [Epub ahead of print]

Abstract

Mobile phone use, predominantly smartphones, is almost ubiquitous amongst both adults and children. However adults and children have different usage patterns. A major challenge with research on mobile phone use is the reliability of self-reported phone activity for accurate exposure assessment.

We investigated the agreement between self-reported mobile phone use data and objective mobile operator traffic data in a subset of adolescents aged 11-12 years participating in the Study of Cognition, Adolescents and Mobile Phones (SCAMP) cohort. We examined self-reported mobile phone use, including call frequency, cumulative call time duration and text messages sent among adolescents from SCAMP and matched these data with records provided by mobile network operators (n = 350). The extent of agreement between self-reported mobile phone use and mobile operator traffic data use was evaluated using Cohen's weighted Kappa (ĸ) statistics. Sensitivity and specificity of self-reported low (< 1 call/day, ≤ 5min of call/day or ≤ 5 text messages sent/day) and high (≥ 11 calls/day, > 30min of call/day or ≥ 11 text messages sent /day) use were estimated.

Agreement between self-reported mobile phone use and mobile operator traffic data was highest for the duration spent talking on mobile phones per day on weekdays (38.9%) and weekends (29.4%) compared to frequency of calls and number of text messages sent. Adolescents overestimated their mobile phone use during weekends compared to weekdays. Analysis of agreement showed little difference overall between the sexes and socio-economic groups. Weighted kappa between self-reported and mobile operator traffic data for call frequency during weekdays was κ = 0.12, 95% CI 0.06-0.18. Of the three modes of mobile phone use measured in the questionnaire, call frequency was the most sensitive for low mobile phone users on weekdays and weekends (77.1, 95% CI: 69.3-83.7 and 72.0, 95% CI: 65.0-78.4, respectively). Specificity was moderate to high for high users with the highest for call frequency during weekdays (98.4, 95% CI: 96.4-99.5).

Despite differential agreement between adolescents' self-reported mobile phone use and mobile operator traffic data, our findings demonstrate that self-reported usage adequately distinguishes between high and low use.

The greater use of mobile smartphones over Wi-Fi networks by adolescents, as opposed to mobile phone networks, means operator data are not the gold standard for exposure assessment in this age group. This has important implications for epidemiologic research on the health effects of mobile phone use in adolescents.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29096315

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Long term variations measurement of electromagnetic field exposures in Alcalá de Henares (Spain)

Sánchez-Montero R, Alén-Corderoa C, López-Espí PL, Rigelsford JM, Aguilera-Benavente F, J.Alpuente-Hermosilla J. Long term variations measurement of electromagnetic field exposures in Alcalá de Henares (Spain). Science of the Total Environment. 598: 657-668. Nov 2017.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.03.131.

Highlights

• The evolution of EMF exposure for Alcalá de Henares over a 2006–2015 is presented.
• Measurements take into account all the sources and their evolution in a 35 km2 area.
• A statistical and spatial analysis and their variations are also analysed.
• We have measured lower EMF levels where the population has remained unaltered.
• New areas have demanded new resources and it has led to an increase of the EMF.

Abstract

Electromagnetic radiowave exposure is a major concern in most countries due to possible adverse health effects. Over the last 10 years, many technological changes (digital television, mobile technologies, wireless networks…) have led to variations in the electromagnetic field (EMF) levels.

A large number of studies devoted to the analysis of EMF levels with personal dosimeters or computer models of the exposure of mobile stations have been conducted. However, the study of the exposure values, taking into account all the existing sources, and their evolution in a wide area, using measurements, has rarely been performed.

In this paper, we provide a comparison of the EMF exposure levels for the city of Alcalá de Henares (Spain) over a ten-year period using a broadband isotropic probe in the range from 100 kHz to 3 GHz. A statistical and spatial analysis of the measurements and their variations are also presented for the study of the global and local variations.

The measured values in the period from 2006 to 2015 were ranging from 0.02 to 2.05 V/m. Our global results show a moderate increase from 2006 to 2010 and they are almost invariant from 2010 to 2015. Although the whole dataset does not have relevant statistical difference, we have found marked local differences. In the city areas where the population density has remained unaltered, we have measured lower exposure levels. Conversely, new urban and industrial developments have demanded new resources, which have potentially contributed to the observed increase in the measured electric field levels within these areas.

Conclusions

This work considers the long term evolution of radio frequency electric field values from 2006 to 2015 for the city of Alcalá de Henares, Spain. This study has been based on 78 measurement locations across a 35 km2 area of the city, providing an average sample density of 2.2 points per square km. During the period considered, officially published statistical data shows a greater use of the radio electric spectrum for television and especially for mobile phones and wireless technologies. At the same time, significant technological changes have been introduced and widely adopted, such as the switch to digital television broadcasting and the proliferation of Wi-Fi. In 2006, the measured mean electric field value was 0.277 V/m, in 2010 this increased to 0.406 V/m and finally, in 2015 this was 0.395 V/m. The greatest increase in the exposure level of electric field strength occurred between 2006 and 2010. This general trend is largely consistent with the increase of radio resources at that time.

The statistical analysis of the measured data shows that it fits a lognormal distribution with a confidence greater than 95%. These results show a moderate increase of the global mean values from 2006 to 2010 and that they are almost invariant from 2010 to 2015. Using this statistical analysis, we can conclude that the probability of finding a value of 14 V/m (half of the prescribed public exposure limit) is less than 0.01% and the probability of finding a value of 28 V/m is negligible.

A narrowband measurement based study could help to a better understanding of the actual influence of the different sources (radio, TV, Mobile, WiFi etc.) in the observed exposure values.

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0048969717306502?via%3Dihub

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IEC/IEEE International Standard - Determining SAR in the human body from wireless communications devices, 30 MHz to 6 GHz

IEC/IEEE International Standard - Determining the peak spatial-average specific absorption rate (SAR) in the human body from wireless communications devices, 30 MHz to 6 GHz - Part 1: General requirements for using the finite difference time domain (FDTD) method for SAR calculations (IEEE Std. 62704-1-2017). No authors listed, IEEE, 2017, ISBN 9781504442596

http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/8088404/

IEC/IEEE International Standard - Determining the peak spatial-average specific absorption rate (SAR) in the human body from wireless communications devices, 30 MHz to 6 GHz - Part 2: Specific requirements for finite difference time domain (FDTD) modelling of exposure from vehicle mounted antennas (IEEE Std. 62704-2-2017). No authors listed, IEEE, 2017, ISBN 9781504441162

http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/7964816/

IEC/IEEE International Standard - Determining the peak spatial-average specific absorption rate (SAR) in the human body from wireless communications devices, 30 MHz to 6 GHz - Part 3: Specific requirements for using the finite difference time domain (FDTD) method for SAR calculations of mobile phones (IEEE Std. 62704-3-2017) No authors listed, IEEE, 2017, ISBN 9781504442619

http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/8089724/
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Combined effects of varicocele and cell phones on semen and hormonal parameters

Schauer I, Mohamad Al-Ali B. Combined effects of varicocele and cell phones on semen and hormonal parameters. Wien Klin Wochenschr. 2017 Oct 13. doi: 10.1007/s00508-017-1277-9.

Abstract

BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to evaluate if there is a combined effect of varicocele and cell phone storage in trousers pockets on semen and hormonal parameters.

METHODS: A retrospective analysis of 468 men attending an infertility clinic from 1993-2007 was performed. Varicoceles were determined by clinical examination and patients were questioned on cell phone usage and storage fashion. Semen samples were analyzed according to the World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines of 1999. Serum testosterone, luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) were assessed.

RESULTS: There was a significant effect of cell phone storage in trousers pockets and varicocele in multivariate analysis (both p < 0.001). Varicocele showed an effect on sperm concentration (p = 0.003), LH (p = 0.014) and testosterone (p = 0.003). Compared to grade 1, grade 2 varicoceles showed a difference in sperm concentration (p = 0.004). Regarding testosterone differences were shown for grade 3 versus grade 1 (p = 0.002) and grade 3 compared to grade 2 (p = 0.003). Cell phone storage in trousers pockets showed an influence on the percentage of normal sperm morphology and LH (both p < 0.001). Varicocele and cell phone storage in trousers pockets did not show a combined effect (p = 0.76).

CONCLUSIONS: This analysis showed an inverse relation between sperm concentration and degree of varicocele, with lower concentrations in higher grade varicoceles. Testosterone was significantly higher in higher grade varicoceles, which could reflect a compensatory mechanism to the impaired testicular function. Cell phone storage in trousers pockets showed an effect on LH and sperm morphology. A combined effect of varicocele and cell phone storage in trousers pockets was not detected.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29030685

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Biological effects of cell-phone radiofrequency waves exposure on fertilization in mice; an in vivo and in vitro study

Fatehi D, Anjomshoa M, Mohammadi M, Seify M, Rostamzadeh A. Biological effects of cell-phone radiofrequency waves exposure on fertilization in mice; an in vivo and in vitro study. Middle East Fertility Society Journal, Available online 23 October 2017.

Abstract

Increasing use of cell-phone is one of the most important risk factors for population health. We designed an experimental study aimed at evaluating the effects of cell-phone radiofrequency (RF) waves exposure on fertilization in mice. Two hundred male and female NMRI-mice were used. One hundred males divided in five groups (n = 20) as control and exposed groups. Those irradiated with cell-phone RF in “Standby-mode” 1, 5 and 10 h daily named groups II, III and IV; respectively. Group V irradiated with cell-phone on “Active-mode” one hour daily. After 30 days irradiation, 50 males and 50 females were kept 24 h to assess their embryos. Fifty males were scarified to evaluate both in vitro and in vivo parameters, and 50 females received PMSG & HCG for both quantitative and qualitative evaluation. Comparing groups III, IV and V with control-group showed significantly decreased in the number of two-cell embryos (p = .000); however, a significant increase was found in the number of dead embryos (p = .000). Furthermore, 5 h daily irradiation significantly decreased grade-A embryos (p = .015); while, it significantly increased grade-B, C and D embryos (p-values = 0.026, 0.007, 0.006; respectively). Moreover, comparing groups IV and V to control-group, significant increase was found in pregnancy duration (p = .005, p = .009; respectively). However, in the mentioned groups a significant decrease was seen in number of newborn mice (p = .001, p = .004; respectively). In conclusion our findings showed that the cell-phone radiation can affect development of embryos as well as the number of newborn and pregnancy duration in NMRI-mouse, which might be a significant cause of reproductive failure.

Conclusions

The results of this study indicate that cell-phone RF waves decreases the quantity of two cells embryos as well as embryos with grade-A quality at the developmental process; while it increases the fragmentation of IVF-derived cells as well as grade-C and D cells in the NMRI-mouse. Cell-phone RF waves also reduces the number of newborn mice, where it increases the pregnancy duration which result in fertility failure in NMRI-mouse.

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1110569017301875

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Interaction between pancreatic β cell and EMF: A systematic study toward finding the natural frequency spectrum of β cell system

Farashi S. Interaction between pancreatic β cell and electromagnetic fields: A systematic study toward finding the natural frequency spectrum of β cell system. Electromagn Biol Med. 2017 Oct 31:1-16. doi: 10.1080/15368378.2017.1389751. [Epub ahead of print]

Abstract

Interaction between biological systems and environmental electric or magnetic fields has gained attention during the past few decades. Although there are a lot of studies that have been conducted for investigating such interaction, the reported results are considerably inconsistent. Besides the complexity of biological systems, the important reason for such inconsistent results may arise due to different excitation protocols that have been applied in different experiments. In order to investigate carefully the way that external electric or magnetic fields interact with a biological system, the parameters of excitation, such as intensity or frequency, should be selected purposefully due to the influence of these parameters on the system response. In this study, pancreatic β cell, the main player of blood glucose regulating system, is considered and the study is focused on finding the natural frequency spectrum of the system using modeling approach. Natural frequencies of a system are important characteristics of the system when external excitation is applied. The result of this study can help researchers to select proper frequency parameter for electrical excitation of β cell system. The results show that there are two distinct frequency ranges for natural frequency of β cell system, which consist of extremely low (or near zero) and 100-750 kHz frequency ranges. There are experimental works on β cell exposure to electromagnetic fields that support such finding.

https://www.emf-portal.org/en/article/33742

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In vitro non-thermal oxidative stress response after 1800 MHz radiofrequency radiation

Marjanovic Cermak AM, Pavicic I, Tariba Lovakovic B, Pizent A, Trosic I. In vitro non-thermal oxidative stress response after 1800 MHz radiofrequency radiation. General Physiology and Biophysics. 36(4):407-414. Oct 2017.

Abstract

In this study possible connection between radiofrequency exposure (RF) and development of oxidative stress was investigated by measuring impairment in cellular oxidation-reduction balance immediately after RF exposure. Fibroblast cells V79 were exposed for 10, 30 and 60 minutes to 1800 MHz RF radiation. Electric field strength was 30 V/m and specific absorption rate (SAR) was calculated to be 1.6 W/kg. Electromagnetic field was generated within Gigahertz Transversal Electromagnetic Mode cell (GTEM) equipped by signal generator, amplifier and modulator. Cell viability was determined by CCK-8 colorimetric assay and level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was detected by dihydroethidium staining. Reduced glutathione (GSH) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) were used to assess cellantioxidant activity while lipid oxidative damage was evaluated measuring concentration of malondialdehyde. Viability of V79 cells remained within normal physiological values regardless of exposure time. Increased level of superoxide radicals was detected after 60-min exposure. Significantly higher GSH level was observed immediately after 10-min exposure with higher but insignificant activity of GSH-Px. Lipid oxidative damage in exposed cell samples was not observed. Short-term RF exposure revealed transient oxidation-reduction imbalance in fibroblast cells following adaptation to applied experimental conditions.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28836500

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Involvement of the p38 MAPK signaling cascade in stress response of RAW 264.7 macrophages

Novoselova EG, Glushkova OV, Khrenov MO, Parfenyuk SB, Lunin SM, Vinogradova EV, Novoselova TV, Fesenko EE. Involvement of the p38 MAPK signaling cascade in stress response of RAW 264.7 macrophages. Dokl Biol Sci. 2017 Sep;476(1):203-205. doi: 0.1134/S0012496617050015. Epub 2017 Nov 4.

Abstract

The role of the p38 MAPK signaling cascade was studied in stress response of RAW 264.7 macrophages to extremely low-intensity centimeter microwaves. Irradiation stimulated production of a number of cytokines (IL-1, IL-6, TNF-α, INF-γ and IL-10), as well as induced activation of the signaling cascades NF- κB and p38 MAPK, and enhanced expression of Hsp72 heat shock protein. In the presence of the cascade p38 MAPK inhibitor (p38 MAP kinase inhibitor XI), the stimulating effects of electromagnetic waves were abrogated either completely (for NF-κB and Hsp72) or partially (for p38 MAPK and cytokines). The results obtained are indicative of a high sensitivity of the signaling cascade p38 MAPK to the effect of low-intensity physical fields.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29101623

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Cellular Response to ELF-MF and Heat: Evidence for a Common Involvement of Heat Shock Proteins?

Zeni O, Simkó M, Scarfi MR, Mattsson MO. Cellular Response to ELF-MF and Heat: Evidence for a Common Involvement of Heat Shock Proteins? Front Public Health. 2017 Oct 18;5:280. doi: 10.3389/fpubh.2017.00280.

Abstract

It has been shown that magnetic fields in the extremely low frequency range (ELF-MF) can act as a stressor in various in vivo or in vitro systems, at flux density levels below those inducing excitation of nerve and muscle cells, which are setting the limits used by most generally accepted exposure guidelines, such as the ones published by the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection. In response to a variety of physiological and environmental factors, including heat, cells activate an ancient signaling pathway leading to the transient expression of heat shock proteins (HSPs), which exhibit sophisticated protection mechanisms. A number of studies suggest that also ELF-MF exposure can activate the cellular stress response and cause increased HSPs expression, both on the mRNA and the protein levels. In this review, we provide some of the presently available data on cellular responses, especially regarding HSP expression, due to single and combined exposure to ELF-MF and heat, with the aim to compare the induced effects and to detect possible common modes of action. Some evidence suggest that MF and heat can act as costressors inducing a kind of thermotolerance in cell cultures and in organisms. The MF exposure might produce a potentiated or synergistic biological response such as an increase in HSPs expression, in combination with a well-defined stress, and in turn exert beneficial effects during certain circumstances.

Summary

In summary, on the basis of the available data dealing with single exposure to ELF-MF showing HSP expression modulations, no (co)relation to MF-dose, specific exposure conditions, or cell type could be identified. The data regarding coexposures to MF and heat are very similar, and we cannot derive any consistent clue regarding a possible common mode of action. There is some evidence that MF and heat might act as costressors inducing thermotolerance in cell cultures and in organisms. The MF exposure might produce a potentiated biological response, such as the increase in HSPs expression in combination with a well-defined stress, and in turn exerts beneficial effects. It is also possible that ELF-MF exposure protects the cells via desensitization against heat stress, and so from secondary effects. Since the mode of action is not clear, we can only speculate if the applied temperature or the MF parameters or the cell type used (cell receptors and metabolic state, culture media, serum, etc.) is a relevant factor influencing the outcome, or if all together are important players in the biological response. Since systematic investigations are not available, we have to consider that beside the physical parameters used, more knowledge is needed about metabolic status and the absolute basal HSP levels of the cell models. Experiments, carried out under strictly controlled conditions from both electromagnetic and biological point of view, are needed to address specifically the underlying mechanisms involving HSPs and cellular responses to ELF-MF and heat.

Open Access Paper: https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fpubh.2017.00280/full

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Magnetic Fields and Reactive Oxygen Species

Wang H, Zhang X. Magnetic Fields and Reactive Oxygen Species. Int J Mol Sci. 2017 Oct 18;18(10). pii: E2175. doi: 10.3390/ijms18102175

Abstract

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) ubiquitously exist in mammalian cells to participate in various cellular signaling pathways. The intracellular ROS levels are dependent on the dynamic balance between ROS generation and elimination. In this review, we summarize reported studies about the influences of magnetic fields (MFs) on ROS levels. Although in most cases, MFs increased ROS levels in human, mouse, rat cells, and tissues, there are also studies showing that ROS levels were decreased or not affected by MFs. Multiple factors could cause these discrepancies, including but not limited to MF type/intensity/frequency, exposure time and assay time-point, as well as different biological samples examined. It will be necessary to investigate the influences of different MFs on ROS in various biological samples systematically and mechanistically, which will be helpful for people to get a more complete understanding about MF-induced biological effects. In addition, reviewing the roles of MFs in ROS modulation may open up new scenarios of MF application, which could be further and more widely adopted into clinical applications, particularly in diseases that ROS have documented pathophysiological roles.

Open Access Paper: http://www.mdpi.com/1422-0067/18/10/2175

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Recent Updates on Electromagnetic Radiation Safety

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Key Cell Phone Radiation Research Studies
Brain Tumor Rates Are Rising in the US: The Role of Cell Phones and Cordless Phones
Effect of Mobile Phones on Sperm Quality
Electromagnetic Hypersensitivity
Quotes from 21 Experts Regarding Electromagnetic Fields

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Joel M. Moskowitz, Ph.D., Director
Center for Family and Community Health
School of Public Health
University of California, Berkeley

Electromagnetic Radiation Safety

Website: http://www.saferemr.com
Facebook: http://www.facebook.com/SaferEMR
Twitter: @berkeleyprc

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